Effect of Moringa Leaf Extract on Pepper Seed Germination.
Pepper Seedlings Improvement, Growth, Fruit Yield and its Quality.
Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is considering an important fruit vegetable crop belong to family Solanaceae which remembered since more than 6000 years ago (Perry et al., 2007). It is the second most important vegetable in the world after tomato for internal consumption and for export. Pepper fruit is rich in vitamins A and C and contain appreciable quantities of proteins and minerals Temu and Temu (2005) and Olaniyi and Ojetayo (2010).
The Moringa leaf extract (MLE) is consider as a natural plant growth regulator where, it is a source of zeatin which it is natural derivative of cytokinin, proteins, vitamins E, phenolics, ascorbates, essential amino acid and several mineral elements, making to putting it as a potential natural growth stimulant, as mentioned by Emongor (2012), Rady et al. (2013), Howladar (2014) and Rady et al. (2015). Other reports have been showed that Moringa extract play as a plant hormone which enhances seed germination, growth and yield of crops. MLE foliar spray improved crop performance, resulting from its role on vigorous plant growth, maintained optimum tissue water status, improved membranes stability, enhanced antioxidant content, as mentioned by Anwar and Bhanger (2003), Nagar et al. (2006) Yasmeen et al. (2012), Yasmeen et Middle East J. Agric. Res., 6(2): 448-463, 2017 ISSN: 2077-4605 449 al. (2013) and Rehman et al. (2014).
Moringa extract have high content of macro and micro elements which enhanced the chemical components in fruits. This finding have also been supported by Yameogo et al. (2011) they found that Moringa oleifera extract have been reported to be a rich source of important minerals as Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Zn, P, S, Cu, Mn, Se and Na which boosted plants to accumulate progressively beneficial elements, which increase the plant nutrient status.
Pepper seed germination is considered a critical step in the development cycle of the plant, germination rate and seedling growth in pepper plants are very low comparing with the other vegetable seedlings.
The goals of this investigation were enhancing either the speed of pepper seeds germination or its percentage, produce healthy seedlings, vigour growth and improve fruit yield and its quality by using Moringa leaf extract (MLE).
The obtained results indicated that Moringa leaf extract at 4% concentration as seed soaking for 6 hours stimulated germination percentage, rate, index as well as coefficient of germination velocity.
Moreover, the same concentration (4%) of MLE as a foliar spray on pepper seedlings in the nursery was sufficient to support all seedlings parameters expressed as height, fresh and dray weight, number of leaves and leaf area. Moreover, the maximum plant growth parameters as well as superior early and total fruit yield were obtained from the same treatment. Furthermore, MLE at concentration of 4% increased average fruit weight, length and diameter as well as fruit chemical contents such as carbohydrate, ascorbic acid and both of K and Ca elements.
For that it can recommend that soaking pepper seeds in Moringa leaf extract solution at concentrate of 4% for 6h for enhancing the germination percentage and seedling characteristics as well as spraying the seedling and pepper plants with 4% MLE solution to obtain superior fruit yield with best quality.
As a general from this study, it can said that, spraying pepper plants with Moringa leaf extract at concentration of 4% was the superior treatment to obtain the maximum values of vegetative growth, fresh fruit yield and its components as well as chemical constituents in the fresh fruits, i.e. K, Ca and carbohydrates as well as vitamin C content (%). Moreover it can by using Moringa leaf extract at concentration of 4% for 6h duration as seed soaking treatment, it stimulate the rapid of germination furthermore enhances germination percentage and also as foliar application on seedlings stage where produce strong and healthy seedlings as well as in plant development phase.
Middle East Journal of Agriculture
Advance from pepper is it has Piperine which makes it easier to consume.